LEUKINE® (sargramostim) activates multilineage immune defense against infection1

LEUKINE is the first and only FDA-approved GM-CSF that supports the survival, growth, and activation of neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages, and myeloid-derived dendritic cells1

Explore the hematopoietic cascade by clicking on the cell types below:

Multipotent hematopoietic stem cell2-5*

*This image is a partial representation of the hematopoietic cascade. It does not include all cytokines necessary for hematopoiesis.


Neutrophil: first responder

  • Neutrophils are the first line of immune defense against invading pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and protozoa7
  • They phagocytize and destroy pathogens and enhance the anti-infection response of immune cells such as dendritic cells, lymphocytes, and natural killer cells7
  • GM-CSF enhances the chemotactic and phagocytic activity of neutrophils and extends neutrophil survival5

Macrophage: immune regulator

  • Macrophages are highly adaptable and dynamic phagocytes that orchestrate the body’s response to infection6
  • They prime and stimulate T cells, promote tissue repair and wound healing, mediate defense against fungal and bacterial pathogens, and produce anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines6
  • GM-CSF augments the ability of macrophages to phagocytize and destroy bacteria and fungi1,5
dendritic cell

Dendritic cell: antigen presenter

  • Dendritic cells are responsible for antigen presentation and immune response regulation8
  • They initiate long-lasting and pathogen-specific immunity8
  • GM-CSF links innate and adaptive immunity by inducing the growth and maturation of antigen-presenting myeloid-derived dendritic cells­1,8

G-CSF=granulocyte-colony stimulating factor; GM-CSF=granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

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