Important Safety Considerations

Leukine® (sargramostim) is indicated for the following uses: (i) following induction chemotherapy in older adult patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) to shorten time to neutrophil recovery; (ii) for mobilization and following transplantation of autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells; (iii) for myeloid reconstitution after autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT); (iv) for use in bone marrow transplantation failure or engraftment delay.
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Leukine in Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation (AuBMT)

Leukine is indicated for acceleration of myeloid recovery in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and Hodgkin’s disease undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT). After autologous BMT in patients with NHL, ALL, or Hodgkin’s disease, Leukine has been found to be safe and effective in accelerating myeloid engraftment, decreasing median duration of antibiotic administration, reducing the median duration of infectious episodes and shortening the median duration of hospitalization. Hematologic response to Leukine can be detected by complete blood count (CBC) with differential cell counts performed twice per week.

Following a dose-ranging Phase I/II trial in patients undergoing autologous BMT for lymphoid malignancies,8, 9 three single center, randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blinded studies were conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Leukine for promoting hematopoietic reconstitution following autologous BMT. A total of 128 patients (65 LEUKINE, 63 placebo) were enrolled in these three studies. The majority of the patients had lymphoid malignancy (87 NHL, 17 ALL), 23 patients had Hodgkin’s disease, and one patient had acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML). In 72 patients with NHL or ALL, the bone marrow harvest was purged prior to storage with one of several monoclonal antibodies. No chemical agent was used for in vitro treatment of the bone marrow. Preparative regimens in the three studies included cyclophosphamide (total dose 120-150 mg/kg) and total body irradiation (total dose 1,200-1,575 rads). Other regimens used in patients with Hodgkin’s disease and NHL without radiotherapy consisted of three or more of the following in combination (expressed as total dose): cytosine arabinoside (400 mg/m2) and carmustine (300 mg/m2), cyclophosphamide (140-150 mg/kg), hydroxyurea (4.5 grams/m2) and etoposide (375-450 mg/m2).

In patients undergoing AuBMT, Leukine was well tolerated and effective in reducing neutropenia after transplantation, thus decreasing morbidity5:

Hematopoietic Cell Recovery

Leukine in Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation

Leukine in Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation

Nemunaitis J, et al. N Engl. J Med. 1991.

  • Adverse events occurring in >10% of Autologous BMT patients receiving Leukine in controlled clinical trials and reported in a higher frequency than placebo were asthenia, malaise, diarrhea, rash, peripheral edema, urinary tract disorder
  • Neutrophil recovery occurred significantly earlier in the Leukine group than in the placebo group
    • Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥500/mm3 (p<0.05) was reached in 19 days with Leukine vs. 26 days with placebo
    • ANC ≥1000/mm3 (p<0.05) was reached approximately in 26 days with Leukine vs. 33 days with placebo*
  • The duration of IV antibiotic therapy was significantly shorter (21 days for Leukine and 26 days for placebo) in the Leukine group than in the placebo group (P =.009)
  • The median duration of initial hospitalization was significantly shorter (25 days for Leukine and 31 days for placebo) in the Leukine group (P =.01)
  • Median duration of infectious episodes was less in the Leukine group

*The data shown are from the Leukine package insert. These data differ from those reported in the study by Nemunaitis et al and are the result of different calculation methods.

Use in Myeloid Reconstitution After Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation

Percent of AuBMT Patients Reporting Events
Events by Body System LEUKINE (n=79) Placebo (n=77) Events by Body System LEUKINE (n=79) Placebo (n=77)
Body, General     Metabolic, Nutritional Disorder    
Fever 95 96 Edema 34 35
Mucous membrane disorder 75 78 Peripheral edema 11 7
Asthenia 66 51 Respiratory System    
Malaise 57 51 Dyspnea 28 31
Sepsis 11 14 Lung disorder 20 23
Digestive System     Hemic and Lymphatic System    
Nausea 90 96 Blood dyscrasia 25 27
Diarrhea 89 82 Cardiovascular System    
Vomiting 85 90 Hemorrhage 23 30
Anorexia 54 58 Urogenital System    
GI disorder 37 47 Urinary tract disorder 14 13
GI hemorrhage 27 33 Kidney function abnormal 8 10
Stomatitis 24 29 Nervous System    
Liver damage 13 14 CNS disorder 11 16
Skin and Appendages          
Alopecia 73 74      
Rash 44 38      
Leukine in Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation
References:
  1. LEUKINE® (sargramostim) [package insert]. Genzyme Corporation 2009.
  2. Rowe JM, Rubin A, Mazza JJ, et al. Incidence of infections in adult patients (> 55 years) with acute myeloid leukemia treated with yeast-derived GM-CSF (sargramostim): results of a double-blind prospective study by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. In: Hiddemann W, et al, eds. Acute Leukemias V: Experimental Approaches and Management of Refractory Diseases. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1996:178-184.
  3. Rowe JM. Treatment of acute myeloid leukemia with cytokines: effect on duration of neutropenia and response to infections. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;26:1290-1294.
  4. Rowe JM, Anderson JW, Mazza JJ, et al. A randomized placebo-controlled phase III study of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in adult patients (>55 to 70 years of age) with acute myelogenous leukemia: a study of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (E1490). Blood. 1995;86:457-462.
  5. Nemunaitis J, Rabinowe S, Singer JW, et al. Recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor after autologous bone marrow transplantation for lymphoid cancer. N Engl J Med. 1991;324:1773-1778.
  6. Nemunaitis J, Rosenfeld CS, Ash R, et al. Phase III randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of rhGM-CSF following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.Bone Marrow Transplant. 1995;15:949-954.
  7. Data on file. Genzyme Corporation.

Leukine Resources

Indication

Leukine® (sargramostim) is indicated for the following uses: (i) following induction chemotherapy in older adult patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) to shorten time to neutrophil recovery; (ii) for mobilization and following transplantation of autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells; (iii) for myeloid reconstitution after autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT); (iv) for use in bone marrow transplantation failure or engraftment delay.

Important Safety Information for Leukine® (sargramostim)

  • Leukine is contraindicated in patients with excessive leukemic myeloid blasts in bone marrow or peripheral blood (≥10%); in patients with known hypersensitivity to GM-CSF, yeast-derived products, orany component of Leukine; and for concomitant use with chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Serious allergic or anaphylactic reactions have been reported with Leukine. If any serious allergic or anaphylactic reactions occur, Leukine therapy should be immediately discontinued and appropriate therapy initiated.
  • Liquid solutions containing benzyl alcohol (including liquid Leukine) or lyophilized Leukine reconstituted with Bacteriostatic Water for Injection, USP (0.9% benzyl alcohol) should not be administered to neonates.
  • Leukine should be used with caution and monitored in patients with preexisting fluid retention, pulmonary infiltrates, or congestive heart failure, respiratory symptoms or disease; cardiac symptoms or disease; and renal or hepatic dysfunction.
  • Edema, capillary leak syndrome, pleural and/or pericardial effusion, sequestration of granulocytes in the pulmonary circulation, and dyspnea have been reported in patients after Leukine administration. Occasional transient supraventricular arrhythmia has been reported during Leukine administration. Leukine has induced the elevation of serum creatinine or bilirubin and hepatic enzymes in some patients. Monitoring of renal and hepatic function in patients with preexisting renal or hepatic dysfunction is recommended at least every other week during Leukine administration.
  • Adverse events occurring in >10% of patients receiving Leukine in controlled clinical trials and reported in a higher frequency than placebo were: in AML patients – (fever, skin reactions, metabolic disturbances, nausea, vomiting, weight-loss, edema, anorexia); in Autologous BMT patients – (asthenia, malaise, diarrhea, rash, peripheral edema, urinary tract disorder); and in Allogeneic BMT patients – (abdominal pain, chills, chest pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, hematemesis, dysphagia, GI hemorrhage, pruritus, bone pain, arthralgia, eye hemorrhage, hypertension, tachycardia, bilirubinemia, hyperglycemia, increased creatinine, hypomagnesemia, edema, pharyngitis, epistaxis, dyspnea, insomnia, anxiety, high BUN, and high cholesterol).
  • If ANC > 20,000 cells/mm3 or if platelet counts > 500,000/mm3, Leukine administration should be interrupted or the dose reduced by half. Twice weekly monitoring of CBC with differential should be performed.
  • Leukine therapy should be discontinued if disease progression is detected during treatment.
  • Drugs that can increase WBCs, such as lithium and corticosteroids, should be used with caution while receiving Leukine. Interactions between Leukine and other drugs have not been fully evaluated.

Please see full Prescribing Information.